What is HAJJ?
Hajj literally means to travel (i.e., towards God) and it also means an effort to dominate something (the self, in this connection). Conventionally this term is translated as ‘pilgrimage,’ although this far from gives the exact significance of the word Hajj. This is the third of the religious duties of a Muslim. It is obligatory on every adult, man or woman, to go once in his or her lifetime to Mecca in order to perform there the great effort for annihilating the ego (fana), i.e., assimilating one’s self with the will of God. Those who do not possess the material means of travel, are exempted from it. But which Muslim would not collect, little by little, the necessary amount for being able one day to visit the centre of his religion, the Ka’bah or the House of God?
Traditionally, pilgrims travel to Hajj in groups with their friends or family, or people from their local mosque as an expression of unity. A woman is encouraged to go to Hajj in the company of a male mahram (mainly father, brother or son) or with her husband. It is also permissable for a woman to go in a group of other women if no mahrams can make the trip.
During the Hajj, male pilgrims are required to dress only in a garment consisting of two sheets of white unhemmed cloth, with the top draped over the torso and the bottom secured by a white sash; plus a pair of sandals. Women are simply required to maintain their hijab with no other specific requirements.The clothing is intended to show the equality of all pilgrims in the eyes of Allah, symbolizing the idea that there is no difference between a prince and a pauper when everyone is dressed equally. The Ihram also symbolizes purity and absolution of sins.
This also portrays simplicity. A place designated for changing into Ihram is called a miqat. While the pilgrim is wearing the Ihram, they cannot shave, cut their nails, wear deodorant or perfume. An invocation, known as the talbiyah, is to be chanted after the pilgrim makes his or her intention for the Hajj.
There are many prohibitions which must be observed while in a state of Ihram. For example, a pilgrim should not swear or quarrel, kill any living thing or engage in sexual intercourse.
Types of HAJJ
Tamattu‘: A pilgrim wears Ihram for Umrah only during the months of Hajj, which means when a pilgrim reaches Makkah, he/she makes Tawaf and Sa’yi for Umrah. Then shaves or clips the hair. On the day of Tarwiya, which is the eighth of Dhul-Hijja, a pilgrim puts on his Ihram for Hajj only and carries out all of its requirements.
Ifraad: A pilgrim wears Ihram for Hajj only. When he reaches Makkah, he performs Tawaf for his arrival and Sa’yi for Hajj. He doesn’t shave or clip his hair as he doesn’t dis-engage from Ihram. Instead, he remains in Ihram till after he stones Jamrah Al-Aqaba on the Eid day. It is permissible for him to postpone his Sa’yi for Hajj until after his Tawaf for Hajj.
Qiran: A pilgrim wears Ihram for both Umrah and Hajj or he wears Ihram first for Umrah, then makes intentions for Hajj before his Tawaf for Hajj. The obligations on one performing Ifraad are the same as those on one performing Qiran, except that the latter must slaughter whereas the former is not obligated to do so. The best of the three forms is Tamattu’. It is the form that the prophet-may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him encouraged his followers to perform.
Rites of HAJJ
At the borders of the sacred territory, around Mecca, one puts off the ordinary dress, and puts on by way of a religious uniform, two sheets of cloth –a loincloth and a shoulder cover, a dress required only of men, not of women. He is bare-headed, and one tries to forget one’s self during the several days of the Hajj. He goes to ‘Arafat, in the suburbs of Mecca, to pass there the day in meditation. Towards evening, he returns, passes the night at Muzdalifah, and early next morning arrives in Mina which is on the outskirts of Mecca. There he passes three days, during which he lapidates Satan every morning, sacrifices a goat, pays a short visit to Ka’bah for performing the ritual sevenfold circumambulation and running between the hills of Safa and Marwah in front of the Ka’bah.
One devotes it to Allah alone, with a desire for the Hereafter. It cannot be done with the intention of being seen among men for worldly gain. One also follows the Prophet’s example, in words deeds. This cannot be accomplished without the knowledge of the Sunnah.
How to perform HAJJ
There are three different ways of performing Hajj.
Tamattu, Qiran , and Ifraad.
1. Tamattu` means performing `Umrah during the Hajj season, and on the Day of Tarwiyah the pilgrim gets into the state of Ihram for Hajj. Anyone intending to perform a Tamattu’ Hajj should make intention for `Umrah when approaching the Miqat. The intention here should be for Umrah. The pilgrim should say;
Labbayk-Allahumma labbayka bi’Umrah!” or “Labbayka ‘Umratan!”
“O Allah! I answer Your call to perform Umrah.”
The pilgrim can add some other du’aa such as: ” O Allah! I intend to perform `Umrah, so make it easy for me, and accept it from me.” It is also allowed for the pilgrim though intending initially to complete Hajj or ‘Umrah to put a condition whereby if for some unexpected sickness or circumstances the journey could not be completed, he, or she, can end the state of Ihraam without having to sacrifice an animal or fast. Therefore, the pilgrim can address Allah saying;
Inna mahilli minal-Ardi haythu habastani”
” I will end up my state of Ihraam wherever I cannot proceed.
After this, the pilgrim proceeds with Talbiyah as shown previously. Once the pilgrim reaches Makkah, he heads for al-Masjid al-Haraam and circumambulates the Ka`bah seven times in a state of wudu beginning by kissing the black stone or if it’s impossible by raising the hands as far as the ears saying, “Bismillah Allahu Akbar!” After Tawaaf, the pilgrim prays two Rak’aas at Maqaamu Ibraahim – without disturbing those who circumambulate- drinks Zamzam water then goes to walk between as-Safaa and al-Marwah seven times, then gets the hair cut or shaved. With this the state of Ihraam and ‘Umrah are ended. On the day of Tarwiyah, that is the 8th of Dhul-Hijjah, the pilgrim enters another time in the state of Ihraam saying;
Labbayk-Allahumma labbayka bi-Hajj!” or “Labbayka Hajjan”
“O Allah! I answer Your call to perform Hajj.
The pilgrim can add, ” O Allah! I intend to perform Hajj, so make it easy for me, and accept it from me. I intend to perform Hajj and I am entering in the state of Ihram only for Your sake, O Allah !” Then the Talbiyah is repeated throughout the rituals of Hajj in Mina, Arafah, and Muzdalifah. On the 10th of dhul-Hijjah, a sacrifice should be offered to Allah as mentioned in Qur’an after stoning at al-Jamaraat. After the sacrifice is done, the pilgrim can shave or cut the hair. Once the Tawaaf of Ifaadah is done, the pilgrim should do Sa’y between as-Safa and al-Marwah for Hajj. However, if a person starts with the Tawaaf of al-Ifaadah, then Sa’y, then shaves and then stones at al-Jamaraat it is also accepted. Tamattu’ Hajj is the most recommended for people and it was more encouraged to it by the Prophet (S). This is indeed the best way to perform Hajj. Once Hajj is completed, a Hady should be offered on the 10th. Allah (swt) says;
“If any one wishes to continue the Umra on to the Hajj, he must make an offering
such as he can afford, but if he cannot afford it, he should fast three days during the Hajj and seven days on his return, making ten days in all. This is for those whose household is not in (the precincts of) the Sacred Mosque, and fear Allah, and know that Allah, is strict in punishment.”(2:196)
2. Qiran means to combine Hajj and ‘Umrah. This means that the pilgrim should declare the intention to perform both Hajj and `Umrah together.
“Labbayk-Allahumma labbayka bi-Hajjin wa-‘Umrah!” or “Labbayka Hajjan wa ‘Umratan!”
“O Allah! I answer Your call to perform Hajj and ‘Umrah!”
In this kind of Hajj, it is not allowed for the pilgrim to end the state of Ihraam after Sa’ay. The pilgrim will not have to perform after the Ifadah Tawaaf on the 10th of dhil Hijjah the Sa’y because it is already performed for both Hajj and `Umrah. The pilgrim is supposed to bring his sacrificial animal with him as the Prophet (S) did. This must be done because the rituals of Hajj and `Umrah were joined together.
3. Ifraad means that the pilgrim declares his intention for Hajj only.
” Labbayk-Allahumma labbayka bi-Hajj!” or ” Labbayka Hajjan”
“O Allah! I answer Your call to perform Hajj.”
The pilgrim maintains his Ihraam up to the Day of Sacrifice. No animal sacrifice offering is required from him.
Rituals of Hajj Tamattu
Ihraam for Umrah from the Miqaat—Tawaaf — saie—Hair Cutting
Umrah is complete here and Ihraam is ended.
>>> On the 8th of dhul-Hijjah Make the intention for Hajj then go to Mina after entering in the state of Ihraam.
>>> Remain in Mina and pray from Dhuhr to Fajr of the 9th then proceed to ‘Arafaat and pray Dhuhr & ‘Asr combined and shortened with the Imam and then stop in ‘Arafaat making du’aa and dhikr then leave to Muzdalifah after sunset.
>>> Pray Maghrib and ‘Isha in Muzdalifah and remain there overnight. After praying Fajr and before sunrise go to al-Mash’ar al- Haraam and make du’aa then go to Jamarat al-‘Aqabah and throw seven pebbles then offer a had’y then shave or cut the hair. Thereafter go to Makkah to make Tawaaf.
>>>Make Tawaaf al-Ifaadah then make Sa’y and your Hajj is complete. Go back to Mina and sleep three nights or at least two. Before you leave Makkah make the Farewell Tawaaf.